Fifty years later, with a population 202,589, it became the largest city in the Western hemisphere.
Today, more than 8 million people live in the city’s five boroughs.
Large portions of the subway outside Manhattan are elevated, on embankments, or in open cuts, and a few stretches of track run at ground level.
In total, 40% of track is above ground, despite the "subway" moniker.
That year, the Dutch West India Company sent some 30 families to live and work in a tiny settlement on “Nutten Island” (today’s Governors Island) that they called New Amsterdam.
The Staten Island Railway is not officially considered part of the subway, as it lacks a rail link with the subway system, so passengers traveling to another borough take a ferry or bus; however, free transfers are allowed to the New York City Subway and the MTA's bus system.
Many lines and stations have both express and local services. Normally, the outer two are used for local trains, while the inner one or two are used for express trains.
Stations served by express trains are typically major transfer points or destinations.
In 1664, the British seized New Amsterdam from the Dutch and gave it a new name: New York City.
For the next century, the population of New York City grew larger and more diverse: It included immigrants from the Netherlands, England, France and Germany; indentured servants; and African slaves.